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The Penguin Dance

However, they have been identified as having at least four different types of feather: The afterfeathers are downy plumes that attach directly to the main feathers and were once believed to account for the bird's ability to conserve heat when under water; the plumules are small down feathers that attach directly to the skin, and are much more dense in penguins than other birds; lastly the filoplumes are small less than 1 cm long naked shafts that end in a splay of fibers— filoplumes were believed to give flying birds a sense of where their plumage was and whether or not it needed preening, so their presence in penguins may seem inconsistent, but penguins also preen extensively.

The emperor penguin has the largest body mass of all penguins, which further reduces relative surface area and heat loss. They also are able to control blood flow to their extremities, reducing the amount of blood that gets cold, but still keeping the extremities from freezing.

In the extreme cold of the Antarctic winter, the females are at sea fishing for food leaving the males to brave the weather by themselves.

They often huddle together to keep warm and rotate positions to make sure that each penguin gets a turn in the center of the heat pack.

Calculations of the heat loss and retention ability of marine endotherms [43] suggest that most extant penguins are too small to survive in such cold environments.

The flippers of penguins have at least three branches of the axillary artery, which allows cold blood to be heated by blood that has already been warmed and limits heat loss from the flippers.

This system allows penguins to efficiently use their body heat and explains why such small animals can survive in the extreme cold.

They can drink salt water because their supraorbital gland filters excess salt from the bloodstream. The great auk of the Northern Hemisphere, now extinct, was superficially similar to penguins, and the word penguin was originally used for that bird, centuries ago.

They are only distantly related to the penguins, but are an example of convergent evolution. Perhaps one in 50, penguins of most species are born with brown rather than black plumage.

These are called isabelline penguins. Isabellinism is different from albinism. Isabelline penguins tend to live shorter lives than normal penguins, as they are not well-camouflaged against the deep, and are often passed over as mates.

In fact, only a few species of penguin actually live so far south. Several authors have suggested that penguins are a good example of Bergmann's Rule [53] [54] where larger bodied populations live at higher latitudes than smaller bodied populations.

There is some disagreement about this, and several other authors have noted that there are fossil penguin species that contradict this hypothesis and that ocean currents and upwellings are likely to have had a greater effect on species diversity than latitude alone.

Penguins for the most part breed in large colonies, the exceptions being the yellow-eyed and Fiordland species; these colonies may range in size from as few as a pairs for gentoo penguins, to several hundred thousand in the case of king, macaroni and chinstrap penguins.

Penguins form monogamous pairs for a breeding season, though the rate the same pair recouples varies drastically. Most penguins lay two eggs in a clutch, although the two largest species, the emperor and the king penguins , lay only one.

Penguins generally only lay one brood; the exception is the little penguin, which can raise two or three broods in a season.

Some yolk often remains when a chick is born, and is thought to help sustain the chick if the parents are delayed in returning with food.

When emperor penguin mothers lose a chick, they sometimes attempt to "steal" another mother's chick, usually unsuccessfully as other females in the vicinity assist the defending mother in keeping her chick.

Penguins appear to have no special fear of humans, and will approach groups of people without hesitation. This is probably because penguins have no land predators in Antarctica or the nearby offshore islands.

Dogs preyed upon penguins while they were allowed in Antarctica during the age of early human exploration as sled dogs , but dogs have long since been banned from Antarctica.

Typically, penguins do not approach closer than around 9 feet 3 meters at which point they appear to become nervous. This is also the distance that Antarctic tourists are instructed to maintain between themselves and penguins: Once he had recovered, Happy Feet was released back into the water south of New Zealand.

Penguins are popularly loved around the world, primarily for their unusually upright, waddling gait, impressive swimming ability and compared to other birds lack of fear of humans.

Their striking black-and-white plumage is often likened to a white tie suit. Mistakenly, some artists and writers have penguins based at the North Pole.

This is incorrect, as there are no wild penguins in the Arctic. The cartoon series Chilly Willy helped perpetuate this myth, as the title penguin would interact with Arctic or subarctic species, such as polar bears and walruses.

Penguins have been the subject of many books and films, such as Happy Feet , Surf's Up and The Penguins of Madagascar , all CGI films; March of the Penguins , a documentary based on the migration process of the emperor penguin ; and a parody titled Farce of the Penguins.

Penguins have also found their way into a number of cartoons and television dramas; perhaps the most notable of these is Pingu , created by Silvio Mazzola in and covering more than short episodes.

At the end of , Entertainment Weekly put it on its end-of-the-decade, "best-of" list, saying, "Whether they were walking March of the Penguins , dancing Happy Feet , or hanging ten Surf's Up , these oddly adorable birds took flight at the box office all decade long.

A video game called Pengo was released by Sega in Set in Antarctica, the player controls a penguin character who must navigate mazes of ice-cubes.

The player is rewarded with cut-scenes of animated penguins marching, dancing, saluting and playing peekaboo. Several remakes and enhanced editions have followed, most recently in Several pro, minor, college and high school sport teams have named themselves after the species, with the Pittsburgh Penguins team in the National Hockey League and the Youngstown State Penguins being the most recognizable.

The tendency of penguins to form large groups feeds the stereotype that they all look exactly alike, a popular notion exploited by cartoonists such as Gary Larson.

Penguins featured regularly in the cartoons of UK cartoonist Steve Bell in his strip in The Guardian newspaper, particularly during and following the Falklands War , and the well-known Opus the Penguin , from the cartoons of Berkeley Breathed , is also described as hailing from the Falklands.

Opus was a comical, "existentialist" penguin character in the cartoons Bloom County , Outland and Opus. In the mids, penguins became one of the most publicized species of animals that form lasting homosexual couples.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Penguin disambiguation. List of Sphenisciformes by population.

Cultural depictions of penguins. Centre National de Ressources Textuelles et Lexicales. Retrieved January 25, Retrieved 29 April Archived from the original on October 16, Retrieved October 7, Retrieved September 8, Archived from the original PDF on Observations on the history of penguins.

Melbourne, Melbourne University Press. Retrieved 30 December Retrieved July 16, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History.

Sphenisciformes combining morphology and mitochondrial sequences". Ewan; Arnason, Ulfur; Penny, David Molecular Biology and Evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. Archived from the original PDF on April 7, Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research.

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